Select Page

Law Classification Systems

Classification Schemes

A thesaurus is a vocabulary of
controlled indexing language, formally organized so that a priori
relationships between concepts are made explicit.

Classification involves systematic grouping of information sources by subject
contents and translation of the subjects into codes of ordinal numbers. These
numbers represent definite subjects and serve as abbreviation for the name of the
subjects they represents. The codes are called “call number” or “class mark”.

There are several classification schemes in use worldwide. Popular ones among
them are:
BLISS Bibliographic Classification (BC)
Bernard Classification Scheme (BCS)
Colon Classification (CC)
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
Library of Congress Classification (LC)
Moy’s Classification Scheme for Law Books (MC)
Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
Each of these schemes except Bernard Classification Scheme, have provisions for
law collections and related disciplines.

Dewey, Decimal Classification Scheme (DDC) treated law as a division, in the social science discipline. It provides class
mark of 340 – 349 for law collections. These class marks are:
340 – Law
340.02-09 – Standard sub-divisions
3401-9 – Philosophy, and theory of Law, Comparative law, Law
reforms, legal systems, Conflicts of law
341 – International Law
342 – Constitutional and Administrative Law
343 – Military, defence, public property, public finance tax, trade(commerce),
industrial law
344 – Labor, social problems and services, education cultural law
345 – Criminal law
346 – Private law
347 – Civil procedure and courts
348 – Law (statutes), regulations, cases
349 – Law of specific socio-economic regions and of specific jurisdiction and areas.

Moys classification Scheme
Moys classification scheme for law books was devised based in part on existing
Classification Schemes, LC and DDC to express the unique characters of law
collections and their categories. The scheme was written by Elizabeth Moys as a
thesis to substitute the missing class K for law materials in the Library of Congress
Classification, and to improve on the provisions for Law Collections by Dewey
Decimal Classification.
Moys incorporates both enumerative number building concepts of LC and faceted
theory of DDC. The scheme adopted a different way of organizing legal materials
due to the difficulty associated with mixing primary and secondary law collections.
The scheme organized law collections into primary law, secondary law, law
reference and law journals.
LC and DDC keep jurisdiction of various countries strictly separated, usually
arranged by continent. Moys treat the countries whose legal systems are based
almost entirely on the common law (England, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, United States etc.) as part of one legal system and all other jurisdictions
as separate legal systems. Within each legal system, materials and divided into
primary sources arranged by form: Legislation, Law reports, etc; and secondary
sources arranged by subject.
The outline of the scheme is provided below:
General and non-national legal system
K Journals and reference books 340.01-9
KA Jurisprudence
KB General and comparative law 340.1
KC International Law 341
KD Religious Legal Systems 342
KE Ancient and Medieval Law 343
Modem national legal systems
Common Law
Primary materials 344
KF British Isles
KG Canada, US., West Indies
KH Australia, New Zealand
Treatises
KL General 345
KM Public Law 346
KN Private Law 347
Other modern legal systems
KP Own country (Optional alternative)
KR Africa 349.6
KS Latin America 349.8
KT Asia and Pacific 349.5
KW European Communities 349.4
Optional alternative
KZ Non-legal subjects
The scheme like DDC and LC make use of tables to ensure specificity in the
classification of information sources. Specific instructions (notes) on how each
table should be used are provided.
The tables are:
Table I Primary materials
II Subjects of Law
III Dates
IV Common Law Jurisdiction
V Courts
VI Special legal forms and topics
VII Persons
VIII Non-legal forms and treatments
IX European Communities Law
In addition to these tables, the scheme has appendices on Criminology, Nigerian
States, their historical periods, and cutter numbers from the index of Jurisdictions.

Notation and Index
Moys scheme has two complete alternative system of notation: Library of
Congress-style (K) and 340, decimal-style system. This style of notation provides
opportunity for law libraries to choose either of the notations, and still enjoy the
benefits of the scheme.
The scheme has a subject index to the schedule. The index is both specific and
relative. Specific index gives only topics while relative index gives topics with their
interrelations with topics. The index of the scheme is referred to as “Indexthesaurus”,
because it combines the quality of thesaurus with index. The
thesaurus terms used in the index are:
RT – Related term
SN – Scope not
UF – Use for
USE

A practical classification system, this work has been updated by
Betty Moys with her Editorial Board and includes suggestions from
lis-moys-users email group. The Moys system is adaptable for use in
dedicated law libraries or general libraries that use the Library of
Congress or Dewey Decimal systems. There are minor alterations
to edition 3, so no need to reclassify a whole library, but growth
areas have been expanded, and numbers are left free for further
additions. Privacy law, hate crimes (anti-paedophile or homophobic
crimes) and pro bono work are so new they were added
after the book went to press.
Not being library trained, I was grateful for the detailed introduction,
which included the principles of classification schemes.
The layout of the schedules is clear with the K (Library of
Congress) notation to the left, and the 340 decimal notation to the
right of the page. Words printed in italics are necessary parts of the
classification which are not used as terms in the index-thesaurus.
The system is biased towards the English-speaking common law,
but expands to all jurisdictions and legal systems, public and
private law, primary and secondary sources. Examples of how to
build up the classification numbers are clear and easy to follow.
Alphabetical sub-divisions can be specified using Cutter numbers,
and the Tables allow addition of fine details: dates; courts; legal
forms and topics; persons, parties and legal capacity; non-legal
forms and treatments. Subjects are connected by linking the class
numbers of constituent elements.
Appendices cover criminology (a sociological rather than legal
study) and Civil Procedure Rules terminology. The index of jurisdictions
is an alphabetical listing of countries with their classification
numbers. More than half the pages are taken up by an ‘indexthesaurus’
which includes all the specific terms in the schedules,
appendices and tables. Preferred terms are in bold type, and
conventional thesaurus notation (UF/use for, RT/related term,
SN/scope note, USE) is employed.
Essential for law librarians, would an indexer find this publication
useful? As librarians are major users, it behoves indexers to know and
understand how they think, and where possible to provide as entry
points terms that they expect. These terms make up the indexthesaurus.
The subject subdivisions within the schedules, for instance
Contract, Tort and Company law, could provide a useful basic structure
for indexes in those subjects. As such, yes, Moys would be a useful
addition to the bookshelf. However, the same terms (with definitions)
could be found in any comprehensive law dictionary
……………….

TITLE: Legal Classification Systems Cataloged in OCLC WorldCat. IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=su:classification+law&fq=dt:bks&dblist=638&qt=sort&se=yr&sd=desc&qt=sort_yr_desc.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law.
TAGS: Legal informatics databases; Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Databases; Lists of resources; Bibliographies; Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Legal Subject Headings Systems Cataloged in OCLC WorldCat. IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=su:subject+headings+law&fq=dt:bks&dblist=638&qt=sort&se=yr&sd=desc&qt=sort_yr_desc.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law. TAGS: Legal informatics databases; Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Databases; Lists of resources; Bibliographies; Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: ALIS IP Ontology [ALIS Intellectual Property Ontology]. RELATION: Claudia Cevenini et al., Development of the ALIS IP Ontology: Merging Legal and Technical Perspectives (2008), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09697-1_14.
RELATION: Giuseppe Contissa & Migle Laukyte, Legal Knowledge Representation: A Twofold Experience in the Domain of Intellectual Property Law (2008), paper delivered at JURIX 2008, http://books.google.com/books?id=V6N3KxIrRYYC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=alis+ip+ontology&source=bl&ots=BzmEWzPE3v&sig=e_XNLeG7N2Z-tuvFjqVnlZLBrHc&hl=en&ei=tkq-S5TSOsSclge2zNnfBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=alis%20ip%20ontology&f=false . SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval; Copyright licenses Data processing; Copyright and electronic data processing. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Copyright ontologies; Copyright knowledge representation; Copyright subject headings; Copyright information systems. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: BISAC Subject Headings: Law.
IDENTIFIER: http://www.bisg.org/what-we-do-0-111-bisac-subject-headings-list-law.php.
PUBLISHER: Book Industry Study Group, Inc. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: CAB Thesaurus: Legal Terms.
IDENTIFIER: Terms related to the term “Law”: http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/mtwdk.exe?k=default&l=60&s=1&n=1&y=0&w=law&t=2;
Terms related to the term “legal system”: http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/mtwdk.exe?k=default&l=60&w=15936&n=1&s=5&t=2;
Terms related to the term “legal liability”: http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/mtwdk.exe?k=default&l=60&w=9155&n=1&s=5&t=2;
Terms related to the term “contracts”: http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/mtwdk.exe?k=default&l=60&w=15928&n=1&s=5&t=2.
PUBLISHER: CAB International. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: CALI Taxonomy. IDENTIFIER: http://www.cali.org/. PUBLISHER: CALI: The Center for Computer-Assisted Legal Instruction. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: CContology: Customer Complaint Ontology.
IDENTIFIER: http://www.jarrar.info/CContology/.
CONTRIBUTOR: Mustafa Jarrar. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Consumer protection Law and legislation; Ontologies Information retrieval; Contracts Data processing; Electronic commerce; Dispute resolution Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Consumer law ontologies; Contract ontologies; Consumer contract ontologies; Commercial law ontologies; ecommerce ontologies; Online dispute resolution ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Citation Standards. IDENTIFIER: See the CITATION STANDARDS section of this Website.

TITLE: CLO: Core Legal Ontology. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original site. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20090414175506/http://wiki.loa-cnr.it/index.php/LoaWiki:CLO
IDENTIFIER: http://uriburner.com/describe/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.loa-cnr.it%2Fontologies%2FCLO%2FCoreLegal.owl
RELATION: Description by Professor Aldo Gangemi: http://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-321/paper4.pdf.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Congressional Research Service Subject Terms. IDENTIFIER: Legislative Subject Terms: http://thomas.loc.gov/help/terms-subjects.html;
Named Entity Subject Terms: http://thomas.loc.gov/help/terms-names.html
CREATOR: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Consumer Protection Ontology.
RELATION: Matthias Holzner et al. (2009). Beyond Web 2.0: What Serious Games, Semantics and Social Networks Can Contribute to eParticipation. Paper presented at eChallenges conference in Istanbul, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Consumer protection Law and legislation; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Consumer law ontologies; Consumer protection ontologies; Commercial law ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Copyright Ontology. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20101012132402/http://rhizomik.net/html/ontologies/copyrightonto/
CREATOR: Roberto García González. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Copyright ontologies; Copyright knowledge representation; Copyright subject headings; Copyright information systems. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Current Index to Legal Periodicals (CILP) Subject Headings. IDENTIFIER: http://lib.law.washington.edu/cilp/revsub.html
PUBLISHER: University of Washington School of Law Marian Gould Gallagher Law Library. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: DALOS: Drafting Legislation with Ontology-Based Support. IDENTIFIER: Website: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20110720161201/http://www.eu-participation.eu/dalos/.
RELATION: Presentation by E. Francesconi, P. Spinosa, & D. Tiscornia: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/loait/slidesLOAIT07/Francesconi-LOAIT07.pdf.
PUBLISHER: European Commission eParticipation Initiative. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Bill drafting; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Legislative drafting systems; Legislative information systems. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Dewey Decimal Classification: Law.
IDENTIFIER: Linked Data Version in SKOS: http://dewey.info/class/34/;
Description of Complete Versions: http://www.oclc.org/dewey/ PUBLISHER: OCLC. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: EPA Terminology Services. IDENTIFIER: http://iaspub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/.
PUBLISHER: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Classification Environmental law; Subject headings Law; Subject headings Environmental law.
TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Environmental law information systems; Environmental law knowledge representation; Environmental law subject headings; Environmental law subject indexing; Environmental law subject classification; Environmental law thesauri; Environmental law ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: EUROVOC. IDENTIFIER: http://europa.eu/eurovoc/. IDENTIFIER: SKOS/RDF version: http://eurovoc.europa.eu/drupal/?q=legalnoticeredirect.
PUBLISHER: Publications Office of the European Union. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law.
COVERAGE:SPATIAL: European Union. COVERAGE:SPATIAL: European Union countries. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: FIBO: Financial Industry Business Ontology. IDENTIFIER: http://www.hypercube.co.uk/edmcouncil/
CREATOR: Bennett, Michael George. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal ontologies; Ontologies of financial instruments.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation. DESCRIPTION: An ontology of financial instruments.

TITLE: Frame-Based Ontology for the Law.
CREATOR: Kralingen, Robert W. van. IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/243822044.
PUBLISHER: Kluwer Law International. DATE: 1995. DESCRIPTION: Also known as: Conceptual Frame-Based Ontology for the Law, Frame-Based Conceptual Ontology for the Law, and Frame-Based Conceptual Models of Statute Law.
DESCRIPTION: Robert van Kralingen, A Conceptual Frame-based Ontology for the Law (1997), http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/243822044.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Functional Ontology of Law: FOLaw.
CREATOR: Valenti, Andre. IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/34019428.
PUBLISHER: IOS Press. DATE: 1995. DESCRIPTION: Andre Valente and Joost Breuker, Towards Principled Core Ontologies (1996), Text: No longer available from original source; archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20110711015343/http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/KAW/KAW96/valente/doc.html; Images: No longer available from original source; archived versions: http://web.archive.org/web/20110711015354/http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/KAW/KAW96/valente/.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Fundamental Legal Concepts: A Formal and Teleological Characterisation. CREATOR: Sartor, Giovanni.
IDENTIFIER: http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/4351/LAW%202006.11.pdf.
PUBLISHER: European University Institute, Department of Law. DATE: 2006.
RELATION:ISPARTOF: EUI Working Papers ; LAW No. 2006/11. RELATION: LKIF-Core Ontology: http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core/.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: GEMET (General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus): Concepts for Legislation. IDENTIFIER: http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/theme_concepts?th=21&langcode=en.
PUBLISHER: European Environment Agency. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Classification Environmental law; Subject headings Law; Subject headings Environmental law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Environmental law information systems; Environmental law knowledge representation; Environmental law subject headings; Environmental law subject indexing; Environmental law subject classification; Environmental law thesauri; Environmental law ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Genre/Form Terms for Law Materials.
CREATOR: American Association of Law Libraries Technical Services Special Interest Section, Classification and Subject Cataloging Policy Advisory Working Group. PUBLISHER: American Association of Law Libraries Technical Services Special Interest Section. DATE: 2009. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20110711015802/http://www.aallnet.org/sis/tssis/committees/cataloging/classification/genreterms/genreformterms200910finaldraft.pdf.
RELATION:REPLACES: Genre terms for law materials: a thesaurus, compiled by William Benemann (Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein & Co., 2006). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: GLIN Subject Term Index. IDENTIFIER: http://www.glin.gov/subjectTermIndex.action
PUBLISHER: Law Library of Congress. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

CREATOR: Hicks, Frederick C. (Frederick Charles), b. 1875; Warren, Katherine, b. 1893. TITLE: Yale Law Library Classification. DESCRIPTION: Preliminary ed.
PUBLISHER: Published for the Yale Law Library by the Yale University Press.
DATE: 1939 IDENTIFIER: LCCN: 40003085 IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/8143461.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: International Patent Classification (IPC). IDENTIFIER: http://www.wipo.int/classifications/ipc/.
PUBLISHER: World Intellectual Property Organization. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Patents Classification. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject classification; Legal ontologies; Patent law information systems; Patent information systems; Patent law knowledge representation; Patent knowledge representation; Patent classification; Patent ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: IPROnto: An Ontology for Digital Rights Management. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20110711015827/http://rhizomik.net/html/~roberto/papers/jdigslrgjurix2003.pdf.
CREATOR: Jaime Delgado, Isabel Gallego, Silvia Llorente, Roberto García González. DATE: 2003. RELATION:ISPARTOF: 16th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, JURIX’03. RELATION:ISPARTOF: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Vol. 106, pp. 111-120. IOS Press, 2003. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval; Copyright licenses Data processing; Copyright and electronic data processing. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Copyright ontologies; Copyright knowledge representation; Copyright subject headings; Copyright information systems; Digital rights management. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) Classification Systems: K – Law and Economics. IDENTIFIER: http://www.aeaweb.org/jel/jel_class_system.php.
PUBLISHER: American Economic Association. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Law and economics; Law Economic aspects. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Law and economics. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: JurMeta. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20100625023303/http://jurmeta.de/?.
PUBLISHER: jurMeta. DESCRIPTION: This is a project to develop metadata standards for legal documents available on the open Internet.

TITLE: JurWordNet: Semantic Web of Legal Terminology. IDENTIFIER: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/Ricerca/materiali/JurWordNet/JurWordNetEng.htm.
PUBLISHER: Italy. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell’Informazione Giuridica (ITTIG-CNR). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Legal WordNets. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Language for Legal Discourse: LLD.
CREATOR: McCarty, L. Thorne. IDENTIFIER: http://logic.stanford.edu/classes/cs204/mccarty.pdf.
PUBLISHER: ACM. DATE: 1989. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: LawMoose Legal Semantic Network / Law Practice Problem Solving Framework. IDENTIFIER: http://www.lawmoose.com/index.cfm?cks=mnlaw
IDENTIFIER: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LawMoose
CREATOR: Pritchard, LaVern. PUBLISHER: LawMoose. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: LC Classification (Library of Congress Classification), Class K: Law. IDENTIFIER: http://www.loc.gov/aba/cataloging/classification/lcco/lcco_k.pdf PUBLISHER: Library of Congress. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Legal Case Ontology. CREATOR: Wyner, Adam Zachary; Hoekstra, Rinke, 1977- IDENTIFIER: http://wyner.info/LanguageLogicLawSoftware/index.php/2010/05/05/legal-case-ontology-owl-file/.
RELATION: Description by Dr. Adam Wyner and Dr. Rinke Hoekstra, A Legal Case OWL Ontology with an Instantiation of Popov v. Hayashi (2010), http://wyner.info/LanguageLogicLawSoftware/index.php/2010/04/28/new-article-on-legal-case-ontologies-in-knowledge-engineering-review/.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval; Judgments. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Court decisions; Judicial decisions; Judicial information systems. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Legal Taxonomy Syllabus. IDENTIFIER: http://www.eulawtaxonomy.org/.
PUBLISHER: University of Turin, Department of Informatics, Natural Language Processing Group. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Subject headings Law; Ontologies Information retrieval; Consumer credit Law and legislation; Consumer protection Law and legislation; Sales. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal taxonomies; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Consumer law information systems; Consumer legal information systems; Consumer protection law information systems; Consumer credit law information systems. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: LexisNexis Headnotes. IDENTIFIER: http://web.lexis.com/help/research/xlink_subjectid.asp
PUBLISHER: LexisNexis. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Law reports, digests, etc. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Subject indexing of court decisions; Subject classification of court decisions; Subject access to court decisions. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: [Licensing Ontology]: Licensing Digital Content with a Generic Ontology: Escaping from the Jungle of Rights Expression Languages. IDENTIFIER: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1276318.1276330.
CREATOR: Nadia Nadah, Mélanie Dulong de Rosnay, Bruno Bachimont. DATE: 2007. RELATION:ISPARTOF: ICAIL 2007: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pages 65-69. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval; Copyright licenses Data processing; Copyright and electronic data processing. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Copyright ontologies; Copyright knowledge representation; Copyright subject headings; Copyright information systems; Rights expression languages.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Linked Data and Law. IDENTIFIER: http://legalinformatics.wordpress.com/2009/08/19/linked-data-and-law/.
PUBLISHER: Legal Informatics Blog. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Linked Data and law; Legal Linked Data; Semantic Web and law; Legal Semantic Web.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Bibliographies; Lists of resources; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: LKIF: Legal Knowledge Interchange Format. IDENTIFIER: Main Page: http://www.estrellaproject.org/?page_id=5;
LKIF-Core Ontology: http://www.estrellaproject.org/lkif-core/.
PUBLISHER: Estrella Project, University of Amsterdam. Leibniz Center for Law. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval.
RELATION: Giovanni Sartor, Fundamental Legal Concepts: A Formal and Teleological Characterisation (2006) (EUI Working Papers ; LAW No. 2006/11), http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/4351/LAW%202006.11.pdf.
TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

CREATOR: LOAIT: Workshop on Legal Ontologies and Artificial Intelligence Techniques. IDENTIFIER: 2010: http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-605/
IDENTIFIER: 2009: Papers: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-465; Website: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/loait/loait09.html;
IDENTIFIER: 2007: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/loait/loait07.html;
IDENTIFIER: 2005: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/loait/loait05.html;
IDENTIFIER: Directory of all files: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/loait/.
CONTRIBUTOR: Italy. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell’Informazione Giuridica (ITTIG-CNR). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law Congresses; Law Methodology Congresses; Artificial intelligence Congresses; Expert systems (Computer science) Congresses; Ontologies (Information retrieval) Congresses. TAGS: Artificial intelligence and law conferences; Legal informatics conferences; Legal knowledge based systems; Legal ontologies; Legal expert systems.
CATEGORIES: Articles and papers; Conference proceedings; Conreferences.

TITLE: LOIS: Lexical Ontologies for the Legal Information Society. IDENTIFIER: http://www.ittig.cnr.it/Ricerca/Unita.php?Id=70&T=E
PUBLISHER: Italy. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell’Informazione Giuridica (ITTIG-CNR). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: LRI-Core. IDENTIFIER: http://www.leibnizcenter.org/previous-projects/lricore.
SPONSOR: University of Amsterdam. Leibniz Center for Law DESCRIPTION: This ontology has been integrated into LKIF-Core Ontology.
RELATION:ISREPLACEDBY: LKIF-Core Ontology. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

CREATOR: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law. TITLE: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law Classification. IDENTIFIER: http://www.mpil.de/ww/en/pub/library/catalogues_databases/doc_of_articles.cfm.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Classification International law; Classification Comparative law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject classification; Legal subject indexing; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

CREATOR: Moys, Elizabeth M. TITLE: Moys Classification and Thesaurus for Legal Materials. DESCRIPTION: 4th ed. PUBLISHER: Bowker-Saur. DATE: 2001. IDENTIFIER: ISBN: 3598115024 ; 9783598115028; IDENTIFIER: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/224691985.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies.
CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: NEURONA Ontologies. IDENTIFIER: http://legalinformatics.wordpress.com/2010/04/24/casellas-et-al-on-ontological-semantics-for-data-privacy-compliance-the-neurona-project/.
CREATOR: Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona Instituto de Derecho y Tecnología; S21sec labs. DATE: 2008- . DESCRIPTION: Núria Casellas et al., Ontological Semantics for Data Privacy Compliance: The NEURONA Project (2010), SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval; Data protection Law and legislation; Privacy Right of. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Data protection ontologies; Privacy law ontologies; Privacy regulation ontologies; Data privacy law ontologies; Data privacy regulation ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: NORMA. CREATOR: Stamper, R. K. (Ronald K.). IDENTIFIER: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9337.1991.tb00094.x.
PUBLISHER: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; John Wiley and Sons. DATE: 1991.
DESCRIPTION: T.J.M. Bench-Capon and P.R.S. Visser, Deep Models, Ontologies and Legal Knowledge Based Systems (1996), http://en.scientificcommons.org/43015038.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Ontojuris. IDENTIFIER: http://www.i3g.org.br/ontojuris/.
RELATION: Description by Cesar K. Stradiotto, Tania C. D. Bueno, and Hugo C. Hoeschl, Ontology Graphical Editor for Multilingual Document Search System (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04957-6_39.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval; Online social networks. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Legal information retrieval; Legal social networks; Legal social media; Web 2.0 and law. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation; Information retrieval; Social networks; Projects.

TITLE: Ontologies and Legal Knowledge.
IDENTIFIER: http://www.di.unito.it/~gull/nlp-web/ontologies.html
PUBLISHER: University of Turin, Department of Informatics, Natural Language Processing Group, and Department of Scienze Giuridiche. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: OPJK: The Ontology of Professional Judicial Knowledge. IDENTIFIER: Description, in Dr. Núria Casellas Caralt, Legal ontology engineering : methodologies, modelling trends, and the ontology of professional judicial knowledge(2011): dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1497-7.
PUBLISHER: Springer. DESCRIPTION: In Dr. Núria Casellas Caralt’s dissertation, entitled Modelling Legal Knowledge Through Ontologies: OPJK: The Ontology of Professional Judicial Knowledge pt. 2 (2008). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval; Judges; Semantic Web.
TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Models of judges’ legal knowledge; Judicial information systems; Judicial knowledge representation; Semantic Web and law; IURISERVICE; SEKT. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: OWL Model of Legal Norms. IDENTIFIER: https://informatika.ftn.uns.ac.rs/legal/svn/norms/trunk/.
CREATOR: Zora Konjovic; Branko Milosavljevic; Goran Sladic; Stevan Gostojic.
PUBLISHER: University of Novi Sad Computing and Control Department.
SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Ontologies Information retrieval. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: SALEM: Semantic Annotation for Legal Management. RELATION: Description by Claudia Soria et al.: http://www.e-p-a-p.com/dlib/9788883980466/art18.pdf.
PUBLISHER: Norme in Rete; Italy. Centro Nazionale per l’Informatica nella Pubblica Amministrazione (CNIPA). SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Automatic indexing; Automatic classification; Subject cataloging; Legislation. COVERAGE:SPATIAL: Italy. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Automatic subject indexing of legal documents; Automatic subject classification of legal documents; Automatic indexing of legal documents; Automatic classification of legal documents; Automatic subject indexing of legislation; Automatic subject classification of legislation; Automatic indexing of legislation; Automatic classification of legislation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Schiller Classification System.
CREATOR: Schiller, A. Arthur. IDENTIFIER: http://www.law.columbia.edu/library/about/classification#3939.
PUBLISHER: Columbia Law School Diamond Law Library. RELATION: Schiller, A. Arthur. The Reclassification and Supplemental Cataloging of Books in the Columbia Law Library: A Survey. 2d ed. Columbia University, Law Library, 1947. OCLC # 183901485; Schiller, A. Arthur & Dorothy Chamberlain. Foreign Law Classification in the Columbia University Library. Rev. ed. Oceana Publications, 1964, c1965. OCLC # 768282. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: Semantic Digital Rights Management System: SemDRMS. IDENTIFIER: No longer available from original source. Archived version: http://web.archive.org/web/20101012132330/http://rhizomik.net/html/semdrms/.
CREATOR: Roberto García González. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Subject headings Copyright; Ontologies Information retrieval; Copyright licenses Data processing; Copyright and electronic data processing. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Copyright ontologies; Copyright knowledge representation; Copyright subject headings; Copyright information systems; Digital rights management. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: UDC (Universal Decimal Classification) Summary: [Law]. IDENTIFIER: http://www.udcc.org/udcsummary/php/ (under “Main Tables,” click on “3 Social Sciences….”, then click on “34 Law. Jurisprudence”). PUBLISHER: UDC Consortium. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: UNESCO Thesaurus: 6.05: Legal Systems.
IDENTIFIER: http://databases.unesco.org/thesaurus/.
PUBLISHER: UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) Article 2 Ontology: Legal Ontology of Sales Law Application to eCommerce.
CREATOR: Bagby, John W.; Mullen, Tracy. IDENTIFIER: http://tmullen.ist.psu.edu/pubs/loait05_saleslaw.pdf.
PUBLISHER: Springer. RELATION: Bagby, John W., and Mullen, Tracy. Legal Ontology of Sales Law Application to eCommerce. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 15(2), 155-170. DOI: 10.1007/s10506-007-9027-3. SUBJECT: Subject headings Law; Classification Law; Subject headings Contracts; Classification Contracts; Subject headings Sales; Classification Sales. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Contract law ontologies; Sales law ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: URN:LEX : A Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace for Sources of Law (LEX). IDENTIFIER: http://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-spinosa-urn-lex/.
CONTRIBUTOR: Institute of Legal Information Theory and Techniques of the Italian National Research Council (ITTIG/CNR); Italy. National Centre for ICT in Public Administration (CNIPA); Brazil, Federal Senate, IT Department (PRODASEN); Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute (LII). DESCRIPTION: “The purpose of the ‘lex’ namespace is to assign an unequivocal identifier, in standard format, to documents that are sources of law. The identifier is conceived so that its construction depends only on the characteristics of the document itself and is, therefore, independent from the document’s on-line availability, its physical location, and access mode. ‘Sources of law’ include any legal document within the domain of legislation (including bills), case law and administrative acts or regulations. This identifier will be used as a way to represent the references (and more generally, any type of relation) among the various sources of law. In an on-line environment with resources distributed among different Web publishers, uniform resource names allow simplified global interconnection of legal documents by means of automated hypertext linking.”

TITLE: U.S. Patent Classification System (USPC).
IDENTIFIER: http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/classification/.
PUBLISHER: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Patents Classification.
TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject classification; Legal ontologies; Patent law information systems; Patent information systems; Patent law knowledge representation; Patent knowledge representation; Patent classification; Patent ontologies. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: West Key Number System. IDENTIFIER: http://west.thomson.com/documentation/westlaw/wlawdoc/wlres/keynmb06.pdf.
PUBLISHER: West, A Thomson Reuters Business. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Law reports, digests, etc. COVERAGE:SPATIAL: United States. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Subject indexing of court decisions; Subject classification of court decisions; Subject access to court decisions. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

TITLE: West’s Outline of the Law. CITATION: In the preliminary pages of West’s Analysis of American Law, http://west.thomson.com/productdetail/154546/17304137/productdetail.aspx
PUBLISHER: West, A Thomson Reuters Business. DESCRIPTION: This outline shows the topical hierarchy informing the West Key Number System. SUBJECT: Information storage and retrieval systems Law; Classification Law; Law reports, digests, etc. COVERAGE:SPATIAL: United States. TAGS: Legal knowledge representation; Legal subject headings; Legal subject indexing; Legal subject classification; Legal thesauri; Legal ontologies; Subject indexing of court decisions; Subject classification of court decisions; Subject access to court decisions. CATEGORIES: Applications; Knowledge representation.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email